Habits of dietary intake contribute to oral diseased conditions. ​

Nutrition is critical to the oral health of the individual.

Vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients are vital to the growth,development, maintenance, and repair of healthy dentition andoral tissues as well as the body systems in general. Nutritionaldeficiencies and unhealthy habits can cause or contribute to oralpathoses such as scurvy, cleft palate, enamel hypoplasia, poormineralization, caries, squamous cell carcinoma, and others.Dentists can play an important role in educating patients on theimportance of good nutrition to oral and systemic health.

From gestation through the end of life, nutrition influences the integrity and function of the teeth and supporting oral structures and has a direct effect on health in general.

A well-balanced diet is key to ensuring that individuals receive the nutrients they need. Some commonly prescribed medications are associated with nutritional deficiencies!

Poor nutrition and unhealthy habits “can affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases.

Dentists who are knowledgeable about nutrition are equipped to ask patients relevant questions about dietary habits that may affect oral and systemic health and to provide guidance that promotes healthy lifestyles.

Vitamins Folate and B complex vitamins Folate (vitamin B9) is a critical component to power the amino acid metabolism required for cell division. It is an essential vitamin and cannot be created in the human body.

Due to its role in nucleic acid synthesis and the rapid cell creation of the growing fetus, the demands for folate increase during pregnancy.

For this reason it is recommended that all women of child-bearing age, even if not currently pregnant, take a daily supplement containing 0.4-0.8 mg of folic acid. Although folate deficiency is most often associated with neural tube defects, recent studies have found a reduced occurrence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate when pregnant women take supplemental folic acid.

Because B vitamins frequently exist in the same foods, they are commonly referred to as the B complex vitamins. A deficiency in one is likely to be accompanied by deficiencies in others.

Deficiencies in B2, B3, B6, and B12 will typically manifest in the oral cavity as stomatitis-inflammation in the mouth, glossitis-inflammation of the tongue, and oral ulcers.

Risk factors for vitamin B deficiencies include older age, medications, chronic alcohol abuse, malabsorptive syndromes, and vegetarian and vegan diets.

Vitamin C Another essential nutrient, vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, which almost exclusively constitutes the

protein portion of teeth and bones. Collagen, and thus vitamin C, are necessary for the creation of dentin, pulp, cementum, periodontal fibers, blood vessels, gingival nerves, connective tissues, and periodontal ligaments. Vitamin C continues to be necessary for the turnover of bone, tooth, and connective tissue throughout the life span.

Inadequate intake of vitamin C will eventually manifest as scurvy. Initial symptoms of scurvy include inflammation of the gingiva. As the deficiency progresses, collagen synthesis is impaired and connective tissues are weakened, causing poor wound healing; inflamed, bleeding gingiva; and loosening of teeth as a result of tissue and capillary fragility.

All fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, but those with the highest content include oranges, berries, broccoli, and red peppers.

Vitamin A Apart from its role in healthy vision, vitamin A functions as an important component required to maintain the mucosal membranes, salivary glands, and teeth. Deficiency in this vitamin will result in various abnormalities, including tooth brittleness, salivary gland degeneration, and increased risk of caries.

Vitamin D A natural hormone of the human body, vitamin D plays an important role in the absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium from the gut, allowing the proper mineralization of bones and teeth. Like insufficient vitamin A, a deficiency in vitamin D is associated with enamel and dentin hypoplasia-deficiency of cells or structural elements.

Inadequate levels of vitamin D during tooth formation may result in delayed eruption as well as lamina dura and cementum loss that leads to tooth loss.

Minerals Calcium and phosphorus The mineralization of the protein matrix is completed with the deposition of hydroxyapatite- the principle storage form of calcium and phosphorus in bone,

giving bones and teeth their compressive strength.

Bone growth continues through childhood and into adolescence. Inadequate intake of calcium will lead to osteopenia, or decreased bone density and mass. If this deficiency remains unaddressed, it will lead to osteoporosis, a disorder wherein the bones become porous, brittle, and subject to fracture. Tooth mobility and premature tooth loss may result. Although not the most common site of fractures, the jaw and oral alveoli will exhibit reduced strength due to the paucity of these minerals.

Other nutrients Just as numerous oral disease conditions are related to a lack of nutrients in the diet, the presence of certain substances and qualities of food, either in excess or outright, will also manifest in disparate ways in the oral cavity.